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Family Names of Dutch Jews
The Netherlands became a major location for Jewish communities, with Amsterdam as the center of Dutch Judaism. Their surnames therefore occupy a significant place in the Dutch surname stock, although this has been much diminished following the Holocaust and subsequent emigration of Dutch Jews to Israel and America. The character of their surnames was determined partly by their own naming traditions, partly by where they came from, partly by their adoption of surnames freshly coined in Dutch, often reflecting their occupations, and partly by the assimilation of their original names to familiar Dutch surnames. The Jewish surname Meijer is a re-spelling of the Jewish personal name Meyer or Meir, as though it were the Dutch occupational or status name. Van Leeuwen (habitational) and De Leeuw (a nickname, 'the lion'), are deliberate adaptations of the Jewish name Levi (a patronymic).
Sephardic Jews from the Iberian Peninsula fled to Amsterdam in the 16th century, bringing with them their Portuguese and Spanish names. Famous names include De Miranda, Querido, Sarphati (a patronymic from the saint's name, Latin Servatus), and Spinoza (a habitational name d'Espinosa). Double names, combinations of father's and mother's surnames according to the Iberian name system, were also introduced, eventually becoming fixed in the Netherlands in forms such as Lopes Cardozo, Rodrigues Pereira, Da Silva Curiël, Jessurun d'Oliveira, and several others.
Ashkenazic Jews from Germany and eastern Europe found a home in Amsterdam as well, some as early as the 17th century. From the 18th century Jewish communities were established in dozens of towns elsewhere, in the so called "Mediene" (the term for all the Dutch Jewish communities or kehilla outside Amsterdam). Some of these migrants already had surnames, such as Cohen 'priest', as well as patronymics based on their traditional personal names (ben David 'son of David', for example). Others either adopted or were given a new surname, frequently a habitational or ethnic name denoting where they had migrated from: Polak ('Polish person'); Moscou, Moscoviter, and Muskewitter (from Moscow), Van Praag, Prager, and Preger (from Prague), Italiaander, Venetianer, Rimini, and d'Ancona; Spanjaard; Van Sweeden; Frans(ch)man; Elzas ('Alsace'); Van Wien, Weenen, and Wiener; Coppenhagen; Hamburger, Frankfort (there was a strong connection with the kehilla in Frankfurt), Manheim, and a host of others from German towns.
When the Civil Registry was introduced in 1811-1812, all members of the Jewish population who as yet had no fixed surname were obliged to choose one. Many chose existing Dutch names, especially those that were commonplace: De Vries, De Jong, De Leeuw, Van Gelder, Van Dam, Meijer, Jacobs, De Groot, Waterman, Van Leeuwen, Wolf, Sanders, Groen, Prins, De Lange, and so on. Many in Amsterdam were known by a Dutch occupational name, the extraordinary range of which cannot be conveyed by this small selection of examples: Voddekoper (rag dealer), Straatveger (street sweeper), Houtkruijer (timber carrier), Bloemist (florist), Groenteman (vegetable man), Vleeschhouwer (butcher), Hoenderplukker (chicken plucker), Hoedemaker (hatter), Kapper (hairdresser), Zilversmit (silversmith), Brilleslijper (spectacle grinder), Boekbinder (bookbinder), Schrijver (writer), Voorzanger (cantor, precentor), and Onderwijzer (schoolteacher). Some bore a metonymic surname from the product that they made or sold or from the tools of their trade, such as Aardewerk (earthenware/pottery), Augurkie (pickle), Diamant (diamond), Gaarkeuken (portable kitchen, soup kitchen), Scheermes (barber's razor), and Sigaar (cigar), although in some cases these may have been nicknames arising from some other circumstance. The family name Citroen (compare Citron in the US) was taken by a lemon seller. A descendant became the namesake of the iconic French car brand Citroën.
For further discussion of Jewish names see the introductory essay by Alexander Beider.
[Leendert Brouwer & Peter McClure, 'Dutch family names', in: DAFN (preface of the revised second edition of the Dictionary of American Family Names, edited by Patrick Hanks, to be published by Oxford University Press in 2022 --- https://www.cbgfamilienamen.nl/nfb/documenten/DAFN%202,%20ESSAY,%20Dutch%20names.pdf)].

• Ook in later tijd bleef de Republiek een toevluchtsoord voor protestanten en andere personen die vervolgd werden vanwege hun geloof, zoals hugenoten uit Frankrijk, Sefardische joden uit Spanje en Portugal en Asjkenazisch joden uit Duitsland, Polen en andere Oost-Europese landen. De joodse vluchtelingen vestigden zich in eerste instantie vooral in Amsterdam [Maarten van Bourgondiën, 'Immigratie', CBG Centrum voor familiegeschiedenis --- https://cbg.nl/kennis/themas/immigratie/].
• [Van Straten-2002].
• [Jits van Straten, De begraafboeken van Muiderberg 1669 - 1811. Indexen van personen begraven op de joodse begraafplaats Muiderberg vanaf 12 januari 1669 tot 21 juli 1811 = The burial books of Muiderberg 1669 - 1811. Indexes of persons buried at the Jewish cemetery Muiderberg from 12 January 1669 until 21 July 1811, Amsterdam 2000].
• Misjpoge, kwartaalblad van de Nederlandse Kring voor Joodse Genealogie [Misjpoge].
• [Harmen Snel, 'Achternamen in Amsterdam. Het naamsaannemingsregister 1811-1826 (1837)', in: Misjpoge 23 (2010), nr. 1, p. 23-26].
• [Harmen Snel, 'Achternamen in Amsterdam. De Portugezen', in: Misjpoge 23 (2010), nr. 3, p. 91-97].
• [Harmen Snel, 'Achternamen in Amsterdam. De arme Asjkenazim', in: Misjpoge 24 (2011), nr. 1, p. 21-31].
• [Stambomen Nederlands Joodse families: http://www.maxvandam.info/humo-gen/index/1/].
• Bekende Joodse achternamen - bekende Nederlandse Joden, InfoNu.nl [https://kunst-en-cultuur.infonu.nl/taal/32993-bekende-joodse-achternamen-bekende-nederlandse-joden.html].
• [https://www.stichtingbehoudvanoud.nl/genealogie-nederland/joodse-achternamen].
• [Heinrich W. Guggenheimer & Eva H. Guggenheimer, Jewish family names and their origins. An etymological dictionary, Hoboken (New Jersey) 1992 / Idem, Etymologisches Lexikon der jüdischen Familiennamen, München 1996].
• [Nelly Weiss, Die Herkunft jüdischer Familiennamen. Herkunft, Typen, Geschichte, Bern etc. 1992 / Idem, The origin of jewish family names, Bern etc. 2002].
• [Lars Menk, A dictionary of German-Jewish surnames, Bergenfield (New Jersey), 2005].

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